Key words: lever, simple machine mechanical advantage, fulcrum, force, effort, load, weight, classes, physical science, Ron Kurtus, School for Champions. Copyright © Restrictions

# Levers are Simple Machines

by Ron Kurtus (revised 20 November 2014)

A lever is a simple machine that allows you to gain a mechanical advantage in moving an object or in applying a force to an object. It is considered a "pure" simple machine because friction is not a factor to overcome, as in other simple machines.

A lever consists of a fulcrum, applied force and load. There are three common types or classes of levers, depending on where the fulcrum and applied force is located. The mechanical advantage is that you can move a heavy object using less force than the weight of the object, you can propel an object faster by applying a force at a slower speed, or you can move an object further than the distance you apply to the lever.

Questions you may have include:

• What are the parts of a lever?
• What are the three types or classes of levers?
• What are the uses for a lever?

This lesson will answer those questions. Useful tool: Units Conversion

## Parts of a lever

A typical lever consists of a solid board or rod that can pivot about a point or fulcrum. A force or effort is applied, resulting in moving or applying force to a load. The distance from the applied force or effort force to the fulcrum is called the effort arm and the distance from the load to the fulcrum is called the load arm.

Parts of a Lever

Since there is typically a very small amount of friction at the fulcrum, overcoming friction is not a factor in a lever as it might be in another simple machine like a ramp or wedge. Thus, we consider a lever a pure simple machine.

## Lever configurations

There are three types or classes of levers, according to where the load and effort are located with respect to the fulcrum.

### Class 1

A class 1 lever has the fulcrum placed between the effort and load. The movement of the load is in the opposite direction of the movement of the effort. This is the most typical lever configuration.

Class 1 lever

Examples of class 1 levers include:

• Teeter-totter
• Oars on a boat
• Catapult
• Shoehorn
• Scissors
• Pair of pliers

### Class 2

A class 2 lever has the load between the effort and the fulcrum. In this type of lever, the movement of the load is in the same direction as that of the effort. Note that the length of the effort arm goes all the way to the fulcrum and is always greater than the length of the load arm in a class 2 lever.

Class 2 lever

Examples of class 2 levers include:

• Wheelbarrow
• Crowbar
• Nut cracker

### Class 3

A class 3 lever has the effort between the load and the fulcrum. Both the effort and load are in the same direction. Note that the length of the load arm goes all the way to the fulcrum and is always greater than the length of the effort arm in a class 3 lever.

Class 3 lever

Examples of class 3 levers include:

• Tweezers
• Stapler
• Mousetrap
• Broom
• Hockey stick

## Uses for a lever

The reason for a lever is that you can use it for a mechanical advantage in lifting heavy loads, moving things a greater distance or increasing the speed of an object.

### Increase force

You can increase the applied force in order to lift heavier loads.

### Increase distance moved

You can increase the applied force in order to lift heavier loads.

### Increase speed

You can increase the speed that the load moves with Class 1 or Class 3 levers.

## Summary

A lever is a simple machine that allows you to gain a mechanical advantage. It consists of a fulcrum, applied force and load. The three types or classes of levers, depend on where the fulcrum and applied force is located.

The mechanical advantage you can gain is to a heavy object using less force than the weight of the object, to propel an object faster by applying a force at a slower speed or to move an object further than the distance you apply to the lever.

## Resources and references

Ron Kurtus' Credentials

### Websites

Machines Resources

### Books

Do you have any questions, comments, or opinions on this subject? If so, send an email with your feedback. I will try to get back to you as soon as possible.

## Students and researchers

www.school-for-champions.com/machines/levers.htm

## Where are you now?

School for Champions

Machines

## Also see

### Let's make the world a better place

Be the best that you can be.

Use your knowledge and skills to help others succeed.

Don't be wasteful; protect our environment.

### Live Your Life as a Champion:

Seek knowledge and gain skills

Do excellent work

Be valuable to others

Have utmost character

#### Be a Champion!

The School for Champions helps you become the type of person who can be called a Champion.